Ethiopia—An Abusive Home for its People? Mr. Obang Metho Address Norwegian Civil Society – Ayyaantuu News Online
Ethiopia’s teff grain set to be the world’s next superfood
Teff, a cultural mainstay in Ethiopia, is poised to become the next quinoa – a grain superfood suitable for gluten-free eaters. It is currently banned for export from Ethiopia over concerns the nation’s citizens would be unable to afford the staple if prices were to soar.
MONDAY, MARCH 10, 2014
AFP PHOTO/SOLAN GEMECHU
A farmer winnows a dried teff crop to separate seeds from stalks at Ada village in Bishoftu town, Oromia region of Ethiopia.
The crop, mostly grown in the Horn of Africa, is a key part of the country’s heritage and a crucial food staple, but is also gaining increased interest abroad among health afficionados seeking a nutritious, gluten-free alternative to wheat.
“Ethiopians are proud of the crop because it is almost our identity,” said Solomon Chanyalew, director of the Debre Zeyt Agricultural Research Centre, a teff research hub.
“But these days, teff is getting global attention,” he said.
Relatively unknown outside of Ethiopia – for now – the cereal is predicted to replace quinoa as the latest global “super-food.”
But a ban on exports to control price hikes at home has left farmers tied to local consumers, limiting their contribution to growing markets abroad.
The poppy-seed sized grain is renowned for its nutritional qualities. Mineral-rich and high in protein, teff is also a slow-releasing food, ideal for diabetics, and sought after by people with a gluten intolerance or Celiac disease.
“Teff is not only gluten-free, which is an increasingly important aspect of foods that is being sought out, but it’s also incredibly nutritious. Many people consider teff to be a super-food,” said Khalid Bomba, CEO of Ethiopia’s Agricultural Transformation Agency.
In Ethiopia, teff is used to make injera, a spongy fermented pancake topped with meat or vegetable stew and consumed with an almost religious devotion, often three times a day.
In the West however, where it is touted by celebrity chefs and health-conscious Hollywood stars, the grain is most commonly ground into flour and used to make biscuits, breads, pastas and even teff juice.
But despite its versatility, Ethiopia’s 6.5 million teff farmers struggle to meet local demand – let alone growing demand from abroad – with limited access to seed varieties, fertilizers and modern machinery that would allow for higher yields.
Teff also suffers from a lack of research since it is considered an “orphan crop,” unlike global crops like rice, wheat, and maize, which are widely studied and well-funded.
“People don’t want to work on teff, basically, it’s not paying,” said Kebebew Assefa, one of only two full-time teff researchers in Ethiopia.
Regardless, productivity has climbed to bridge the supply gap, with the introduction of 19 new teff varieties and improved farming techniques.
In the last four years, yields have increased from 1.2 to 1.5 million tons per hectare, which Khalid said bodes well.
“The production increases are what gives us the confidence that Ethiopia will be able to compete at a global level when it comes to tapping into the increasing demand from consumers in Europe, in London, or New York or Brisbane,” he said.
An estimated two million tons per hectare is required to reach export potential.
For now, the ban on exports remains in place to avoid the pitfalls of quinoa in Bolivia, where most people could not afford the staple crop after the surge in global popularity.
The price of teff – $72 per quintal – is already too expensive for the majority of Ethiopians who earn less than two dollars per day.
But farmers are eager to export their teff, well aware of the higher prices they can fetch.
“I want to sell it abroad because it’s going to have a good market and I will earn good money and it will bring good motivation for my work,” said Tirunesh Merete, 60, who has been growing teff for nearly four decades.
Neighbouring farmer Amha Abraham said he is keen to make more money, but recognizes that local markets need to be fed first.
“If we export teff to other countries then we can get a lot of money, but we must provide first for our country’s consumption,” he said, standing near a giant pile of golden teff stalks, used for roofing and as cattle feed.
Until the export ban is lifted, Ethiopian farmers remain excluded from a growing international industry, with teff products appearing on shelves in health food stores across North America and Europe.
“Everybody has started talking about gluten-free,” said Rob Roffel, CEO of the Dutch company Consenza, which produces gluten-free foods from teff grown in the Netherlands.
“The demand for gluten-free foods mainly was for Celiacs… but what we see now more and more is other target groups interested in teff flour,” he said, adding that his business has grown 30 percent annually since 2006.
In the meantime, Khalid said he has high hopes for teff.
“If you look at what’s happened with quinoa, it’s a $150 million market in five years and teff is actually much more nutritious and much more resilient than quinoa,” he said.
“So we think there’s a much bigger market opportunity for teff.”
L.A. Marathon winner Amane Gobena of Ethiopia is prize-possessed
Intent on winning not just women’s race but also gender challenge bonus, she does both to earn $75,000. Countryman Gebo Burka is men’s winner.
Gobena, of Ethiopia, wanted to make sure that no one could threaten her shot at a $75,000 payday.
She had no need to worry.
Gobena won the women’s race in 2 hours 27 minutes 37 seconds to earn $25,000.
Countryman Gebo Burka won the men’s race in 2:10:37, but his time was not fast enough to overcome the 17-minute 41-second head start afforded the women as part of the event’s $50,000 gender challenge.
Gobena crossed the finish line 41 seconds ahead of Burka to collect the bonus.
“I’m building a house,” Gobena said through an interpreter, “and definitely that house will be paid off.”
It was the second time in the 29-year history of the L.A. Marathon that Ethiopians swept the men’s and women’s races. In 2011, Markos Geneti won the men’s race, Buzunesh Deba the women’s.
Burka earned $25,000 and dedicated his first marathon victory to his recently born son.
Joshua George won the men’s wheelchair race in 1:33:11. Susannah Scaroni won the women’s race in 1:54:54. Each earned $2,500.
More than 25,000 participants took part in the 29th annual marathon, which followed a course from Dodger Stadium to Santa Monica.
Temperatures were in the high 50s when the elite runners started and in the 70s when they finished.
Shortly after the wheelchair athletes left the starting line, 10 elite women followed, with Gobena running among a pack that included four other Ethiopian runners and American Lauren Kleppin.
Gobena, 31, finished second in the 2009 L.A. Marathon. She placed sixth in the Dubai Marathon in January and said this week that she was determined to win not only the L.A. Marathon women’s race but also the challenge bonus.
Asked Sunday if the runners worked together to make sure that she or another Ethiopian woman would win the challenge, Gobena said she encouraged other Ethiopians to “come forward.”
Gobena led after 13.1 miles in 1:12:43. She and Ethiopian Tigist Tufa pulled away from the pack at about the 18th mile, and Gobena began breaking away from Tufa four miles later en route to her fifth marathon victory, her first since 2011.
“I knew she was slowing down a little bit,” Gobena, through the interpreter, said of Tufa.
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Bitootessa 8, bara 2014
Ayyaaneffannaa Guyyaa Dubartoota Addunyaa fi Sochii Hawaasa Oromoo Netherlands
Waggaan dhibbaffaa (100ffaa) Ayyaaneffaa Guyyaa Dubartoota Addunyaa, Dubartoota Hawaasa Oromoo Netherlandiin Bitootessa 8 bara 2014 magaalaa Amsterdam Netherlands keessatti kabajamee oole.
Sagantaan kun eebba maanguddotaa tiin eegalme. Eebba Maanguddoo kana wanti adda godhu Obbo Awwal Abbaa Bulguu bifa faarfannaa tiin eebba dhiyeessuu isaani ti.
Eebbaa maanguddootaa tti ansuu dhaan Itti gaafatamtuun Dhimma Dubartoota Hawaasa Oromoo Netherlands Aaddee Aliimaa Usmaan hirmaatotaaf ibsa kennanii jiru. Ibsa kennan kana keessatti;-
“Dhiibban adda addaa wanna tureef Mirgi dubartootaa akka kabajamuuf jecha sochii fi wal-ga’iin addaa addaa biyyoota garaa garaa keessatti dubartootaan taasifamaa ture. Dhuma’rrattis bara 1914 kaasee Bitooteessi 8 Guyyaa Dubartootaa Addunyaa ta’ee sadarkaa guutuu addunyaa tti, waggaa waggaan ayyaaneffamaa jira. Keessattuu bara 1977 Mootummoota Gamtoomaan jechuun “United Nation” biyyota miseensota isaa ta’an affeeruu dhaan “Bitootessi 8 Guyyaa Mootummoota Gamtoomanii mirga dubartootaa fi nageenya addunyaa tiif” labsa jedhu erga dabarsee kaasee ayyaaneffaan guyyaa kanaa hubannoo cimaan gaggeeffamaa jira.
Dubartoonni Oromoo biyya adda addaa keessa jiran guyyaa Dubartoota Addunyaa haga tokko kabajaa turaniiru. Akka Dubartoota Oromoo Netherlaand tti’mmoo yeroo calqabaaf guyyaa hardhaa kana Bitootessa 8, bara 2014 ayyaaneffamuu calqabe.
Yeroo Sabni Oromoo sirna Gadaa tiin wal-bulchaa ture, Dubartoonni Oromoo seera Siinqee tiin wal-quba qabaachaa turaniiru. Galmi maatii jiraachisu Utubaa dhaan jabaatee dhaabbata. Jiruu fi jireenyi dhala namaa’mmoo dubartii dhaan utubama. Bakka dubartiin jirtu miidhagina, gammachuu, jaalala, kabaja, quufa, gootummaa fi tokkummaatu jira. Bakka dubartiin hin jirre waanti martinuu hirdhuu dha. Jiruu fi jireenya dhala namaa keessatti waanti dubartii qooda hin fudhachiifne hanga ittoo soogidda hin qabnee tti.
Dhugaan jiru kana ta’ee otoo jiruu dhiibbaan adda addaa Dubartoota’rra gahaa tureera. Ammallee taanaan dhimmoota akka diinagdee, sochii siyaasa fi hawaasummaa keessatti qoonni dubartooti Oromoo qaban gahaa miti. Qooda fudhannaan dubrtootaa Oromoo maaf muraasa ta’e jennee yoo dhugaa xiinxallee ilaalle aadaa, amantii fi seera biyyaa tti wanti quba nama qabsiisu hin jiru. Garuu seerri Abbaa manaa mirga dubartii’rratti dhiibbaa gochaa akka jiru hubachuun nama hin dhibu.
Kanaafuu Tokkummaa Hawaasa Oromoo cimsuuf, akkasumas abbaa biyyummaa Oromoo mirkaneessuuf hirmaannaa dubartootaa daran jabeessuun heddu barbaachisaa dha.
Akka Koree Dubartoota Hawaasa Oromoo Nederland tti waanti isin maratti dhaammannu dubartoota ykn shamarran beektan kanneen Netherlands keessa jiraatan akka ijaarsa kanatti makaman taasisuuf tattaaffii guddaa isini’rraa eegganna. Ofuma’rraa ykn manuma ofii’rraa eegaluun karaa sirrii akka ta’ellee akka hin dagatamne isini tti dhaammanna”, jechuu dhaan itti gaafatamtuun Dhimma Dubartoota Hawaasa Oromoo Netherlands Aaddee Aliimaa Usmaan dhaamsa ijaarsa Dubartootaa jabeessu dabarsanii jiru.
Sochii Hawaasa Oromoo Netherlands
Ayyaaneffannaa Guyyaa Dubartootaa tiin wal-qabatee waltajjiin Hawaasa mariisisu gaggeeffameera. Waltajjii Uummataa kana’rratti Dura Taa’aan Hawaasa Oromoo Netherlands Obbo Garasuu Tufaa gabaasaa fi Karoora hojii Hawaasichaa baldhinaan dhiyeessanii jiru.
Gabaasaa dhiyaate keessatti;-Koreen harayaan Hagayya 24 bara 2013 erga filatamanii yeroo gabaabaa baatii ja’a qofaa kan lakkoofsise ta’ullee hojii sirnaqabeessa ta’an adda addaa hojjatamuu isaa ibsamee jira, Akkasumas hojiilee fuula dura kanatti hojjatamuu qabaniif Karoora hojii bara 2014‘llee dhiyaatee jira.
Karoora hojii dhiyaate keessatti:-
- Jaarmiyaa HON daran jabeessuuf, gama Dubartootaa tiin, gama Dargaggootaa tiin, gama Maanguddootaa fi gama hundaanuu qooda fudhannaa miseensotaa cimsuu.
- Dalagaalee Ijaarsaa, Diinagdee, Aadaa fi Mirga Namoomaa ilaalatuun toora hundaanuu sochii HON shaffisiisuu,
- Uummata Oromoo biyya keessa jiruuf birmannoo fi tumsa mirga namoomaa adda addaa taasisuu,
- Baqattoota Oromoo Nederland keessatti waraqaa hayyama jireenyaa dhorkatamaniif gargaarsa isaan barbaachisu raawwachuu,
- Dalagaalee gaggeeffaman hundaa Gorsaa fi Towannoo dhaan ordoffii sirnaa raawwachuu,
- Seeraa fi Heera ilaalchisee qapxilee sirrachuu qaban, ykn qapxilee wixineeffamuu qaban gulaaluu/qindeessuu, Gumii dhaan ykn Koraan raggaasisuu,
- Dameelee hojii hundayyuu humanna namaa tiin utubuu,
- Offisa banuu,
- Hawaasa biyya adda addaa kanneen biyya Netherlands keessa jiraatan waliin hariiroo humuu,
- Hawaasa Oromoo Addunyaa waliin, jechuun Hawaasa Oromoo biyya adda addaa keessa jiran waliin hariiroo cimaa humuu,
- HOA (Hawaasa Oromoo Auropaa) bifa “federation” tiin, seera waloon ijaaruu,
- Adeemsa hojii sirna qabeessa taasisuu dhaan karoora wixineeffame sirnaan hojii’rra akka oolan taasisuu,
- Sagantaalee adda addaa kan akka Hiriira Mormii, jechuunis Oromiyaa keessatti sarbamiinsa mirga namoomaa gaggeeffamaa jiru hiriia mormu qindeessuu, Wal-dorgommii ispoortii, Ayyaana Irreechaa fi Sagantaa Bashannanaa adda addaa qopheessuuf akka karoorfame Obbo Garasuun gabaasa dhiyeessan keessatti ibsanii jiru.
Haaluma wal-fakkaatuun miseensota koree duraan kan ta’an Obbo Gabbisaa Laxiif, Obbo Dassaalanyi Hayilee fi Obbo Yoonaas Tarrafaa sochiin hawaasa Oromoo Netherlands haala akkamii keessa akka darbe waltajjii marii Hawaasaa kana’rratti dabaree dabareen ibsanii jiru.
Hawaasinni Oromoo Netherlands waggoottan 20n olitti tajaajila Hawaasummaa Oromummaa raawwachaa akka ture, akkasumas Qabsoo Oromoo jajjabeessaa akka ture ibsa Dura Taa’aa Koree duranii Obbo Gabbisaa Laxiif kennani’rraa hubachuun danda’ameera.
“Adeemsa waggaa dheera kana keessa tti haala yeroo tiin wal-qabatee wal-hubannoo dhabiinsi adda addaa Hawaasichaa mudachaa tureera. Haata’u malee bifa harayaan qorannoo gaggeeffameen, seera harayaa wixineeffameen jijjiramni ykn fooyyiin Hawaasa keenya keessatti argame heddu nama gammachiisa” jechuu dhaan miseensonni koree duraanii yaada isaanii ibsanii jiru.
Uummanni heddummina qabu sagantaa kana’rratti hirmaatanii jiru. Uummanni marii’rratti argame gaaffii fi deebii dabalatee, gargaarsi baqattoota Oromoof barbaachisu jabaachuu akka qabu, wal-hubannoon hawaasummaa Oromummaa daran cimuu akka qabu, yaada adda addaa dhiyeessuu dhaan koree duraanii fi koree harayaa waliin marii baldhaa taasisanii jiru.
Itti aansuu dhaanis Koreen Hawaasa Oromoo Netherlands waggoottan dheeraaf tajaajila Hawaasummaa Oromummaa raawwachaa turan sirna galateeffannaa raawwatee jira. Sirna galateeffannaa kana’rra tti qaaman kan argaman miseensota Koree duraanii Obbo Gabbisaa Laxiif, Obbo Dassaalanyi Hayilee fi Obbo Yoonaas Tarraafaa Waraqaa Ragaa fi Abaaboo galateeffannaa isaan tiif qophaa’ee Dursaa fi Barreessaa Hawaasaa harkaa fudhatanii jiru. Bifuma wal-fakkaatuun qaama miseensa koree duraanii kan ta’an Dr. Baqqalaa G/Maariyaam tiif Waraqaa Ragaa qophaa’ee bakka bu’aa isaan tiif kennamee jira. Kana malees nama Aasxaa HON hojjate Obbo Bakkaanga’aa Margaa dabalatee namoota hojii boonsaa adda addaa raawwataniif abaaboo fi kennaan adda addaa kennameefii jira.
Dhuma sagantaa kana’rratti Koreen Hawaasa Oromoo Netherlands duraanii Galmee fi Chaappaa dabalatee “dokumentii” adda addaa koree harayaa filatamanitti dabarsanii kennanii jiru.
Akkuma walii galaatti sagantaan kun eebba Maanguddootaan eegalamee naamusa Oromummaa fi qindomina nama hawwatuun hirmaatota gammachiisee xumuurameera.
Oromummaa Waloon qabnu waliin haa jabeessinu!
Barreessaa Hawaasa Oromoo Netherlands
SEXUAL VIOLENCE & RAPE IN ETHIOPIAN WOMEN EXCEPT TIGRAY WOMEN!
BY Hana Geleta (Norway)*
Sexual violence and Rape are weapons used indiscriminately by TPLF/EPRDF CADRES, SOLDIERS AND FEDERAL POLICE IN ETHIOPIA. They are targeted against innocent people living in villages and towns caught in the crossfire. ETHIOPIA is often described as being ‘the most dangerous place in the world to be a woman.
The UN estimates that a staggering more than 200,000 women and girls have been the victims of rape or sexual violence in ETHIOPIA during the last 15 years. The worst of the violence is happening in all of the country except Tigray.
Women are targeted indiscriminately for rape and violence. And it’s not just women – young girls are often raped too. Charities on the ground there are also seeing an increasing number of young boys who have been the victims of sexual violence.
Some are attacked in their homes and villages; many are kidnapped and taken into the forest where they may be held captive as a ‘bush wife’ for months at a time. Whilst there they are subjected to gang rapes and have to deliver babies without any medical facilities whatsoever.
The federal police and army is widely acknowledged to do so too. Discipline within the army is very poor and most soldiers don’t get paid regularly. They therefore have to ‘live off the land’ like apartheid do and resort to much the same tactics to keep the local population as scared and compliant as possible.
The government it’s a powerful and cheap weapon with which to control the local population. It intimidates them into compliance, punishes them for cooperating with rival groups, and keeps people scared and therefore enables the armed groups to maintain control of like apartheid the country.
Rape is an incredibly cheap and powerful weapon which usually leaves its victims both physically and psychologically traumatized. Its effects can be felt for a lifetime – either through fathering unwanted children or leaving women infertile, incontinent and often with diseases like syphilis, fistula and HIV.
It also does huge damage to families and communities. There’s a real stigma and sense of shame around the women who have been raped, and their husbands and families often find it very hard to accept the women back after what’s happened to them.
We’re part of the ETHIOPIA Now coalition of charities that’s campaigning to help put ETHIOPIA and its people back on the agenda of the world’s decision-makers!
We Ethiopian women are the same and equal with Tigray women and we need protection!!
*The author, Hana Geleta, can bereached by email@example.com
The following is a report of the Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa Field Trip to Uganda to assess the living situations of refugees and asylum seekers of different backgrounds from Ethiopia, and now living in Kampala, Uganda, in October and November 2013.
Read the Full Report (HRLHA) at Gadaa.com
05. 03. 14
BOQOTA Dr. PAUL BAXTER FI GADDA NATTI DHAGAYAME
Taammanaa Bitimaa irraa
Firri keeny, ee firri cimaan kan uummata Oromoo fi saba Oromoo Dr. Paul Baxter boqochuu isaa, kunoo amman mandeewwan Oromoo kanneen garagaraa irraa qalbeeffaddhe. Gadda jabaatu natti dhagayame. Mee WAAQNI guddichii fi tokkichi kan hunduu Isa harka jiru: maatii isaa, firoottan isaa fi hiriyoota isaatii jajjabinaa fi obsa isaaniif haa kennu! Lubbuun isaa jannata nuuf haa seentu!
Uummanni Oromoo baldhaan kunii fi sabni Oromoo guddichi kun firoottan biyyoota alagaa hedduu hin qabu. Firoottan dhugumatti fira Oromoo tahan keessaa, Dr. Paxter tarree duraa irratti kan argamu. Abbaan keenya, kabajamaan kun umurii isaa guutuu waayee Oromoo irratti hojjate; qorannoo fi barannoo adeemsise jechuu kiyya. Inni bara 1952 keessa waayee Oromoo qorachuu fi qu’achuu jalqabe. Bara 1952 fi 1953 waggaalee lama guutuu waayee Oromoo Booranaa, Keeniyaa Kibbaa fi Bahaa keessatti qorate. Bara 1954 keessa immoo digirii isa dhumaa, kan “PhD” jedhamu waayee-dhuma Oromoo irratti qorachuun argate. Barumsi isaa barumsa xinaadaa (“anthroplology”) waan taheef, aadaa fi seenaa saba Oromoo irratti jireenya isaa guutuu qorannoo fi barsiisa adeemsise. Inni fira Oromoo callaa otoo hin taane, fira uummatoota Afrikaa teenyaa kanneen birootisi. Hubaddhaa! Oggaa inni waayee aadaa fi seenaa keenyaa qorachuuf eegalu, uummatoonnii fi saboonni Afrikaa garri dhibbayyaa 90 (“95%”) ol tahan harqoota gabrummaa warra Oroppaa jalatti argamuuyyu. Biyyi nama nama caaluu kun, biyyi Dr. Paxter tan Biritaaniyaa Guddoo jedhamtu: “Impaayera Biritaaniyaa-tti biiftuun gonkumaa hin lixxu” (“the sun never sets on the British Empire”), jechuun warri Biritaanii Guddoo tun of-waamuyyu.
Kan hedduu nama dhibu, Dr. Paul Paxter otoo gara Keenyaa hin deemin gara Toopphiyaa dhaqee, waayee Oromoo irratti qorachuu barbaadee ture. Ennaa sana mootummaan Habashaa kan Hayila-Sillaaseen durfamu, hayyama isa dhoowwate. Inni kanaaf, gara Biyya Keeniyaa, kan oggaa sana kolonii Biritaaniyaa turteetti qajeele. Garuu, gara boodaa bara dibba kudha-sagalii fi jaatamoota keessa (“1960s”) akkuma tahu tahee, hayyama mootummaa Toopphiyaa irraa argachuun Oromiyaa naannolee addaddaa keessatti qorannoo adeemsiseeti jira. Gaafa inni hayyama mootummaa Habashaa Shaggar irraa fudhachuun aadaa fi seenaa Oromoo qorachuuf godina Arsii dhaqu, waan gurri isaa dhagayee amanuun rakkisetoo isa qanname. Nafxanyoota godinaa fi koonyaawwan Arsii maal bulchuu mitii, bitan keessaa inni tokko: “maal irratti qorannoo adeemsisuuf dhufte?” jedheni. “Ani aadaa fi seenaa Oromoon qorachuuf dhufe”, jedhee yommuu Dr. Baxter deebisu, Amaartichi Habashaa sun: “isaanimmoo aadaa fi seenaa maalii qabuuyyi qoratta!”, jedheeni. Inni kun sirumaa namni beekamaa fi jaalatamaan keenya kun akka cimee waayee Oromoo qoratuu fi barsiisu isa taasise. Oromoon “aadaa fi seenaa” hin qabu jechaan mee, “Oromoon bineensa” jechuun kan addaa tahee miti. Haatahu malee, inni Habashoonni: Oromoo, Afar, Somalee, Agawoo, Hadiyyaa, Sidaamaa, Gedewoo, Koonsoo, Kambaataa, Kuulloo-Kontaa, Kafichoo, Gimiraa, Moochaa, warra Gambeellaa, warra Beenishaangul, Gurraagee, Hararii (Adaree) fi Alaabaa fayin: “seenaa hin qaban” jedhan kunillee, yaada Habashootaa kan orijinaalee tahee miti. Isaan akkuma wannnen hedduu asii fi achii bubbutachuun ergifatanii “nutu uummate, handhuuraa keenya” faa jedhan sana, isa kanas koloneeffatoota Oroppaa irraayyi ergifatani. Warra Oroppaa kanatu Afrikaan faa “seenaa hin qabdu” jedhuun, humna meeshaa waraanatiin qabachuun addaan qircataniiyyu.
Dottoreen keenya, Pirof. Baxter yaadan ani waayee koloneeffatoota Oroppaa fi Habashaa irratti ibse kana akka gaariitti nama barsiisu ture. Ani Dr. Baxter bara 1982 keesseen karaa qunnamtii xalayaatiin baruu dandaye. Waraqaan ani yeroo sana waayee seenaa fi barreessumsa (ogubarruu) Oromoo irratti baase tokko, kan uummata Oromoo godina Tuulamaa-Maccaa (Oromiyaa Waltajjii) irraa walitti qabame, kan walaloota isaa gara Afaan Ingiliziitti naaf hiike isaa fi Dr. Mohaammad Hasan ture. Akkan waraqaa sanis gara Pirofeesar E. Haberland-itti, jechuun gara unibarsitii Firaankifurtii-tti ergu isatu na gorse. Dr. Haberland-is gammachuun kitaabee inni gulaalee baasu takka keessatti bara 1983 baase. Kana malee, gaafan ani waraqaa sana gara isaatti ergu gorsaa fi qajeelfama hedduu cimaa tahe naaf dabarse. “Nuti isin ijoolleen Oromoo kanneen waayee uummata keessanii irratti qorattan barbaannaa, adaraa itti-nuu cimsi!”, faa kan jedhu ture. Namoota Oroppaa fi Ameerikaa Kaabaa kanneen waayee Oromoo irratti qoratan keessaa gariin isaanii, qorannoo digirii isa “PHD”-iif dhiyeessan san booda itti hin fufani. Waan uummanni Oromoo kottee gabrummaa Habashaa jala jiruuf, waan mootummaa ofii hin qabneef, kana isaan jajjabeessuu fi isaanii karaa banuuf hin turre. Ammallee hin jiru. Kanaaf, qorattoonni kun qorannoo isaanii gara biraatti xiyyeeffachuuf dirqamu. Isaan hafan garuu kunoo akkuma Dr. Baxer, jireenya isaanii guutuu dhimma Oromoo ilaalu irratti hojjatu. Isaan ammallee nu wajjin jiranii fi kan akka Dr. Baxter, nu dhiisanii bakka dhala namaa maraaf kurfeeffame deeman, qaamaan namoota alagaati malee, qaamaan Faranjoota malee, onnee fi qalbiidhaan Oromoo-dhuma.
Amma as irratti yoon waayee nama akkuma Dr. Baxtrer umurii isaa guutuu waayee uummata obbolaa keenyaa, waayee Somalee fi waayee Oromoo irratti qorate, innis amma kan addunyaa tana irratti hin argamnee yoon isiniif ibse, warri “onnee fi qalbiidhaan” Oromoo yookaan Somaalee, Sidaamaa yookaan Walaayitaa faa tahan kun hangam nu waliin dhama’aa akka turan, gariinillee ammas dhama’aatuma akka jiran nutti agarsiisa. Bara 1989 keessa “Kora Qorannoo Hortee Kuushi fi Omoo” isa magaalaa Turiinoo, Biyya Xaaliyaanii-tti godhame irratti walagarre, waan Pirof. B. W. Andrzejewski naan jedhe san jiraa kiyya dhiisitii du’aan kiyyallee waan irraanfatuu miti. Innis durii durii bara uummanni Somaalee keenya akka dullacha masqalaatti koloneeffatoota Oroppaa fi koloneefatoota gurraalee, warra Habashaatiin bitamaa jiru san irraa kaaseeti, kan Afaan Somaalee irratti qorachaa ture. Inni waayee Afaan Oromoos akka yeroon isaaf hayyametti ni qorata ture. “Taammanaa ilaa kan miidhame isin Oromootaa fi Somaalota, warra Kuush kanneen biroo fi warra Omoo callaa mitii! Nuti warri waayee keessan qorannus mee miidhamnee jirraa! Waayee keessanii fi waayee uummatoota akkum keessan miidhamanii waan qorannuuf, mootummaan Toopphiyaa nu rakkisa. Kanaaf, isinis nuuf jabaaddha-kaa! Nuti isin cinaa jirrawoo!” , naan jedhe namni akkuma Dr. Baxter raajeffatamu kun. Inni kana irrtti dabaluun: “Warra Habashaa duwwaa seetee kan nu rakkisu, kan nutti qoosu? Warrumti Oroppaa fi Ameerikaa isaan waayee warra Seem qoratan nutti qoosu. Bara dhibba kudha-sagalii fi jaatamootaa keessa: “Kora Qorannoo Toopphiyaa” isa Addis Ababaa-tti tahe irrattin, ani barreessumsa Oromoo keessaa kan walaloodhaan waayee Sheek Huseen Baalee ibsu dhiyeesseyyu. Boqonnaa bunaatii baanee oggaa deebinu, Faranjootumatu barandaa irraa dhaabatee Afaan Amaaratiin “Sheek Huseen maxxaa!” jechuun natti qoosaa ture.” Ee, namoonni dhabne kun kan akka Dr. Baxter fi Dr. Andrzejewski-in namoota jiruu fi jireenya isaanii waayee Oromoo, waayee Somaalee fi waayee uummatota Kibbaa miidhamoo kanaa taasifatan turani.
Dr. Baxter nu dhiisee dabrus gorsii fi barreeffamoonni isaa sun nu biratti hafaniiru. Gorsa isaa qalbeeffannee, barreeffamoota isaa baay’ee san dubbisaa: aadaa, seenaa fi afaan keenya irratti qorannoolee ciccimoo fi tujuba-qabeeyyii tahan adeemsifanna. Ennaa sana akka Oromoon jedhutti ekeraan isaa gammaddi. Lubbuun isaas bakka gaarii san, jannata qubatti! Gaafa Oromiyaan teenya walaboomtee, uummanni Oromoo inni jaalatu kun bilisoome daandiiwwan lama, tokko Finfinnee Shaggaritti, tokkommoo magaalaa Asallaatti maqaa jaalatamaa fi kabajamaa keenyaa, maqaa Dr. Paul T.W. Baxter-iin waamamu. Akkuma inni aadaa Oromoo jaaltu sana, akka inni eebba Oromootiin: “A River of Blessings”, jechuun raajeffatu sanan anis maatii isaa: haadha warra isaa Pat, ilma isaa Adam fi ijoollee ijoollee isaa kanneen inni akaakayyuu fi abaabayyuu tahuuf hunda eebbisaa, mee na hoofkalchaa:
Maatii Waaqni eebbisen, eebbisaa na ergattanii?
(Ee, si erganne!)
Akka isin “ee” naan jettan
Waaqni ee isiniin haa jedhu!
Ilaa, fira cimaa dhabnee
Waaqni bakka isaa firoottan hedduu nuuf haa buusu!
(Nuuf haa buusu!)
Lubbuun isaa jannatatti haa galtu!
(Jannatatti haa galtu!)
Haadha warraa isaa Pat umurii haa dheeressu!
(Umurii haa dheeressu!)
Nagaa fi fayyaa ishiif haa keennu!
(Ishiif haa kennu!)
Ijoollee fi ijoollee ijoollee isaatii nagaa haa keennu!
Wanneen gaggaaridhaan isaan haa badhaasu!
(Isaan haa badhaasu!)
Nagaa fi nageenyi qeyee isaanii irraa hin dhabamini!
(Qeyee isaanii irraa hin dhabamini!)
Qacceen Dr. Baxter hortee lafa haa guuttu!
(Hortee lafaa haa guuttu!)
Maqaa gaariin, maqaa jaalalaatiin haa waamamtu!
(Maqaa jaalalaatiin haa waamamtu!)
Biyyaa fi uummata ofii haa jaalattu!
Biyyii fi uummannis ishii haa jaalatu!
(Ishii haa jaalatu!)
Isan ani jedhe kana mee WAAQNIS haa jedhu!
(Waaqnis haa jedhu!)
Kanan ani irraa hanqise mee WAAQNI ittaadabalu!
Warri na jalaa qabdan kunis horaa, bulaa!
Oromoon marti horee haa buluu!
Wal horee dachee haa guutu!
Nagaa fi nageenya hin dhabinaa!
Bilisummaa fi walabummaas hin dhabinaa!
Firoottan akka Dr. Baxter faa-s hin dhabinaa!
=========== Hubachiisota Miiljalee ==========
* Ani barreeffama kana beekatuman itti-yaaduun Afaan Ingilizii dhiisee Afaan Oromootiin barreesse. Tokkoffaa isumatu nuti Oromoonni barannee ofiin jennu akka afaan keenyaan barreessinu nu gorsaa, nu jajjabeessaa ture. Lammaffaa ani warra birootii otoo hin taane, Oromootaafan barreessa. Dhaloonni Qubee ijoollee fi ijoota nuuf tahan kun, ee isaan biyya haadhaa-abbaa isaanii keessatti argaman kun, dheebuu Afaan Oromootiin waa dubbisuu fi waa barachuu qabu. Seenaa Dr. Baxter irraa akka waa baratanii fi barreeffatoota inni waayee Oromoo irratti baase, dubbisuuf akka fidhii horatanin fedha. Dabaleesoo, Afaan Ingilizii-tiin hamma hardhaatti: WQO (OSA), Dr. Abbaas Ganamoo fi Opride baasaniiti jiru. Haa-tahuutii, Oromoonni London keessatti argaman kanneen maatii Dr. Baxter fayiin walbeekan isa kana afaanii afaanitti, keessumaa eebba kana gara Afaan Ingilizii-tti otoo hiikaniifii mishoo dha.
** Tarroo (“list”) barreeffamoota Dr. Baxter waayee Oromoo irratti baase, hamma tokko WQO (OSA) fi “OPride.com” waan baasaniif, mee “gadaa.com”, “ayyaantuu.com”, “OPride.com” fi “OromiyaaTimes.org” faa ilaalaa!
By OPride Staff
(OPride) – Paul Trevor William Baxter, who spent nearly six decades studying the Oromo, has died this week in a hospital in Stockport, England, his grandson Mark Baxter confirmed to OPride on Tuesday.
Baxter is survived by his loving wife of 69 years, Pat, his son Adam as well as four grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.His elder son, Tim, unfortunately predeceased him.
Baxter began his anthropological study in the early 1950s as a graduate student, combining academic analysis, field research and unconventional insights about imperial Ethiopia into his work. In 1978, Baxter published his seminal article “Ethiopia’s Unacknowledged Problem: the Oromo” in the esteemed British JournalAfrican Affairs. As his long time friend and colleague Bonnie K. Holcomb, Senior Research Associate at George Washington University’s Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies explains, “with that act, he lent his intellectual and moral support as an established and respected scholar to those of us who were struggling to be heard as we confronted Ethiopianist scholarship which was exceedingly resistant to Oromo studies in those days.” Baxter’s undeniable arguments solidified the exigency of Oromo scholarship and marked a turning point for scholars focused on this systematically ignored group.
Born in 1925, Baxter studied at Cambridge and Oxford Universities. His interest in studying the Oromo, Ethiopia’s single largest ethnic group, dates as far back as 1952 when he first sought permission from Emperor Haile Selassie’s regime to conduct research on the Gadaa system. When Ethiopia, whose policies systematically repressed the Oromo, denied him permission, Baxter went to Northern Kenya, where he spent two years studying the social organization of the Borana Oromo. His 860 page dissertation, “The Social Organization of the Oromo of Northern Kenya”, which became an indispensable resource was published in 1954.
ODUU BITOOTESSA 4, 2014
Oduu Oromia Media Network Bitootessa 4, 2014
- Ameerikaan Obbo Junedin Saaddoof koolugaltummaa siyaasaa kennite
- Hayyuun Qorannoo Oromo Professor Paul Baxter boqotan
- Ruusiyaan warraanni Yookreen kutaa Bahaa qubate akka harka kennu doorsifte
- Tirfi Tsaggaayee Maaratooni Tookiyoo moo’atte
Oromia Media Network News for March 4th, 2014
- OMN inaugurated on March 1st, 2014.
- Junedin Sado granted asylum in the US.
- Oromo Studies Pioneer and long time advocate, Professor Paul Baxter dies.
- Tirfi Tsegaye wins Tokyo Marathon.
Ibsa Ejjannoo Walgahii Addaa TBOJ
Nuti miseensonni Tokkummaa Barattoota Oromoo Biyyaa Jarmanii (TBOJ) walgahii addaa kan gafa Bitooteessaa 02, bara 2014 magalaa Nürbergittii adeemsifanne irratti dhimmoota wa’ee haala ijjaarsa keenyaa fi kan Qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoon har’aa keessaa jiruu ilaallattan irratti maree bal’oo taasisuun murtee addaa addaa dabarsuun xummuurratneerra. Walgahii kanaa irratti baruumsaa fi haala yeroo ilaalchissee Miseensii Gumii Sabaa ABO J/Dr. Shigut Galata dhaaba ABO bakka bu’un nu giddutti argamuun ibsa bal’aan nu keennamee jira. Haala amma TBOJ Keessaa jiruu ilaalchissee karaa Dura ta’aa fi Barreessaa Damee Würzburg fi nannoon J/Gamachuu Fayyisaa fi J/Obsa Adam wal duraa duubaan ibsaa kennameera.
Itti aansuunis walgahichi dhimmoota armaan gaditti irratti murtee dabarsuun xummuurame:-
1. Deeggarsa QBO irratti
Nuti miseensonni TBOJ Walgahii kanaa irratti qooda fudhannee QBO kan kallacha qabsichaa ABOn hoogganamu of qusannaa tokko malee kan ca’aa tokko irra eegamuuu maraan kan cinaa dhaabbannu ta’uu ammas irra deebinee waadaa seenne haaromsina. Sochii Qerroo kano bifaa fi haala qindoomina haaraatiin finiinaa jiruu fi Waligalaa kan dhaabnii ABO kallachumman gaggeessaa jiru jabinaa fi murannoon wan dandeenyuu maraan kan deeggarru ta’uu beeksifna. Gachannii Ummataa Oromoo, WBOn, daran tarkanfii isa akka cimsaatuu wan qabnuu fi dandeenyuu maraan biraa dhaabbannaa.
2. Balaaleffannaa Mootummaa Impayeeraa Ityophiyaa kan ABUT-tin Hogganamtu
Miidhaa Mootummaan Impayeeraa Ityophiyaa kan ABUT-n hogganamutuu uummata keenya irraan gahaa jiru ni balaaleffanna, ni mormina, kara dandeenyu maras dura dhaabbannaa.
Akeekaa fi karooraa duguuggaa sanyii (policy of Genocide) ummataa keenyaa fi uummatoota cunqurfatamtoota addaa addaa irratti Mootumman TPLF geeggessaa jiru ni balaalleeffannaa. Yakkamtoonni sirna wayaanee miidhaa akkasii qaqabsiisan hatattamaan akka seeratti dhiyaatanii itti gaafataman Biyyootiin Demokratawwaa fi Jarmooleen mirgaa dhalaa namaaf falmaani akka dhiibbaa godhaan ni gaafanna. 2
3. Hariiroo mootummaa TPLF fi kan biyyoota Ollaa ilaalchisee
Biyyoonnii ollaa Itiyoophiyaa tokko tokko hariiroo mootummaa Wayaanee faana qaban hal duree tarkaanfii fi sirna mootummichaa kan hin xiinxaalle tahuu irran kan ka’ee Waligaltee idilee adunyaa tokko tokko caabsuun midhaa dangaa hinqabnee geessaa jiru.
Keesumaayyuu mootummoonni biyyoota akka Somaliland fi Keeniyaa Waligaltee Adunyaan qabduu faalleessaa yeroo yerootti baqaataa Oromoo dabarsaanii Mootumaa TPLF-tti keennun badhii tahuu hubataanii fuulduraaf dalaga akkasii irraa akka of qusatan cimsinee gaftnaa.
Tokkummaan Barattoota Oromoo Biyya Jarmanii diina miidhaa fi jibbiinsi isaa saba keenyaaf daangaa hin qabneef hojjattanii fi akkasumas bira dhaabbattan, dalagni keessan uummata keessaniif miidhaa ammamii fi akkamii akka qabu xinxaltanii hubachuun harka diinaa jalaa of baaftanii gara mooraa QBOtti akka deebitan waamicha keenya cimsinee isiniif dhiyeesina.
Tokkummaan humnoota QBO yoom iyyuu caala barbaachisaa fi murteessaa ta’uun isaa hubatamaa dha. Kanaafuu araaran moraa qabsoo Bilisummaa Oromoo gabisuuf tokkummaan jarmoolee kan kayyoo irratti hunda’ee kan kanaan dura jalqabame jiruu xumuraa itti gochaa kan hafeess fuulduratti akka cimee itti fufuu fi babal’atu qaamota dhimmi kuni isaan ilaalu maraaf waamicha keenya ammas irra deebinee dabarsina.
Dhuma irrattis tumsii fi tokkummaan saboota cunqursaa jalatti kufanii argamanii kan galii kaayyoo qabsoo isaanii as dhiyeessu akkasumas kan diina immoo naasisuu fi bir’uu guddaa irraan ga’u ta’uu isaa hubatamee, Hariiroon tarsimoo irratti akeekkatee akka cimu qaamonni dhimmi isaa isaan ilaalu akka irratti hojjatan waamicha keenya dabrsinaaf. Baruumsa barbaachisu kennuu fi haala gamtaa akkasii mimijeessu bakka hundattii fi qaama hundaan akka irratti hojjatamu jechuun ergaa keenya dabrfanna.
Injifannoon Uummata Oromoof!
Hirmatootaa Walgahii addaa TBOJ, Nürnberg, Bitooteessaa 02, 2014
Statement from the Oromo Studies Association (OSA) on the passing away of Dr. Paul Baxter, a longtime Oromo studies scholar (1925-2014)
The Oromo Studies Association’s Tribute to the Late Dr. Paul Baxter (1925-2014)
It is with great sadness that the Oromo Studies Association (OSA) informs the Oromo and friends of Oromo about the passing away of Dr. Paul Baxter on March 2, 2014. He was 89. Dr. Paul Baxter was a distinguished British anthropologist who devoted his life to Oromo studies. He is one of the finest human being, who contributed immensely to the development of Oromo studies at the time when the scholarship on the Oromo people was extremely discouraged in Ethiopia. His death is a significant loss for his family, all those who knew and were touched by his humanity and kindness, and for the students of Oromo studies. Dr. Paul Baxter is survived by his wife, Pat Baxter, his son, Adam Baxter, and his three grandsons and their children.
Born on January 30, 1925 in England, Paul Trevor William Baxter, popularly known as Paul Baxter or P.T.W. Baxter, earned his BA degree from Cambridge University. Influenced by famous scholars such as Bronisław Kasper Malinowski, Charles Gabriel Seligman, and Evans Pritchard, Paul Baxter had a solid affection for social anthropology. He went to the famous Oxford University to study social anthropology.
It was at the zenith of the Amharization project of Emperor Haile Selassie that he developed a strong interest to study the social organization of the Oromo people. In fact, in 1952, he wanted to go to Ethiopia to study the Oromo Gada system. Let alone tolerating this type of research, Ethiopia was in the middle of the massive project to eradicate the memory of the Oromo from their historic and indigenous territories. The Assimilation policy was in the full swing. Little spared from an attempt was made to change everything Oromo into Amharic. Even the Oromo names of urban centers were rechristened into Amharic names. It is no wonder that Ethiopia was reluctant to welcome a researcher like Baxter who was looking for the soul of the Oromo culture in the homogenizing Ethiopian Empire. Nonetheless, the challenge did not bother the young and exuberant Baxter to pursue his studies. He was determined more than ever to study the social fabric of the Oromo nation. Failed to get permission to do research among the Oromo in Ethiopia, he went to the British Colony Kenya to study the Borana Oromo social organization in northern Kenya. He spent two years (1952 and 1953) among them, which resulted in his PhD dissertation: ‘The Social Organization of the Oromo of Northern Kenya’, in 1954. This research became a foundation for more of his researches to come and a reference for the students of Oromo studies. Besides, the research disqualified many of the myths and pseudo facts that assume the Oromos were a people without civilization, culture, and history. Dr. Paul Baxter did not stop here. He continued with his studies and spent several decades studying different aspects of the Oromo society. It was through his extended research among the Oromos that he deconstructed some of the myths that portrayed the Oromo people as a “warlike” or “barbarian” nation. The title of essays in his honor, in 1994, “A River of Blessings” speaks to his perception and reality of the Oromo as a peace-loving nation. In his article, “Ethiopia’s Unacknowledged Problem: The Oromo,” he highlighted some of the Oromophobic and barbaric manners of the Ethiopian Empire, and he suggested that peace with the Oromo nation was the only lasting panacea to the Ethiopian political sickening.
In his long academic and research career, he studied the Oromo from northern Kenya to Wallo and Arsi to Guji and so on. He edited a number of books on Oromo studies and published many other articles and book chapters in the field of social anthropology. He participated several times on OSA annual conferences. During the 1960s and 1970s, Dr. Paul Baxter was known as the finest living social anthropologist in the United Kingdom. Besides his impressive scholarship on the Oromo society, Dr. Paul Baxter’s lasting legacy is that he educated so many scholars who have studied Oromo culture both in Kenya and Ethiopia. Dr. Paul Baxter’s passion and determination will inspire the generation of students of the Oromo studies. Our prayers and thoughts are with his family, friends, and Oromos and friends of Oromo studies during this difficult time.
Ibrahim Elemo, M.D., M.P.H
President, the Oromo Studies Association
Mohammed Hassen, Ph.D.
Board Chairman, the Oromo Studies Association
A partial list of his scholarly works on the Oromo includes the followings:
1. “The Social Organization of the [Oromo] of Northern Kenya,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Oxford University, 1954.
2. “Repetition in Certain Boran Ceremonies” In African Systems of Thought, ed. M. Fortes and G. Dieterlin, (London: Oxford University Press for International African Institute, 1960), 64-78.
3. “Acceptance and Rejection of Islam among the Boran of the Northern Frontier District of Kenya” In Islam in Tropical Africa, edited by I.O. Lewis (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), 233-250.
4. “Stock Management and the Diffusion of Property Rights among the Boran” In Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, (Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Haile Selassie I University, 1966), 116-127.
5. “Some Preliminary Observations on a type of Arssi Song” In Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Ethiopian Studies, ed. E. Cerulli (Rome: 1972).
6. “Boran Age-Sets and Generation-set: Gada, a Puzzle or a maze?” In Age Generation and time: Some Features of East African Age Oroganisations, ed. P.T.W. Baxter and U. Almagor, ( London: C. Hurst, 1978), 151-182.
7. “Ethiopia’s Unacknowledged Problem: The Oromo”, African Affairs, Volume 77, Number 208 (1978): 283-296.
8. “Atete: A Congregation of Arssi Women” North East African Studies, Volume I (1979), 1-22.
9. Boran Age-Sets and Warfare”, in Warfare among East African Herders, ed. D. Turton and K. Fukui, Senri Ethnological Studies, Number 3, Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology( 1979), 69-95.
10. “Always on the outside looking in: A view of the 1969 Ethiopian elections from a rural constituency” Ethnos, Number 45(1980): 39-59.
11. “The Problem of the Oromo or the Problem for the Oromo” in Nationalism and Self-Determination in the Horn of Africa, ed. I.M. Lewis, (London: Ithaca Press, 1983), 129-150.
12. “Butter for Barley and Barley for Cash: Petty Transactions and small Transformations in an Arssi Market” In Proceedings of Seventh Congress of Ethiopian Studies (Lund: 1984), 459-472.
13. “The Present State of Oromo Studies: a Resume,” Bulletin des Etudes africaine de l’ Inalco, Vol. VI, Number 11(1986): 53-82.
14. “Giraffes and Poetry: Some Observations on Giraffe Hunting among the Boran” Paiduma: Mitteilungen fur Kulturkunde Volume 32 (1986), 103-115.
15. “Some Observations on the short Hymns sung in Praise of Shaikh Nur Hussein of Bale” In The Diversity of the Muslim Community, ed. Ahmed el –Shahi, (London: Ithaca Press, 1987), 139-152.
16. “L’impact de la revolution chez les Oromo: Commentl’ont-ils percu, comment ont-ils reagi?” In La Revolution ethiopienne comme phenomene de societe, edited by Joseph Tubiana, (Paris: l’Harmattan, Bibliotheque Peiresc, 1990), 75-92.
17. “Big men and cattle licks in Oromoland” Social change and Applied Anthropology; Essays in Honor of David David W. Brokensha, edited by Miriam Chaiken & Anne K. Fleuret,( Boulder: Westview Press, 1990), 246-261.
18. “Oromo Blessings and Greetings” In The Creative Communion, edited by Anita Jacoson-Widding & W. Van Beek (Uppsala, Uppsala Studies in Cultural Anthropology , 1990), 235-250.
19. “Introduction “In Guji Oromo Culture in Southern Ethiopia by J. Van de Loo, ( Berli: ReinMer, 1991).
20. “Ethnic Boundaries and Development: Speculations on the Oromo Case” In Inventions and Boundaries: Historical and Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Ethnicity & Nationalism, edited by Kaarsholm Preben & Jan Hultin, (Denmark: Roskilde University, 1994): 247-260.
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Oromia Media Network (OMN), explained by its founders as “an independent, nonpartisan and nonprofit news enterprise whose mission is to produce original, impartial, citizen-driven reporting,” was inaugurated on March 1st 2014.
OMN is based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where the largest and most active Ethiopian origin ethnic Oromo Diaspora lives. “The goal of this network is to create multilingual news and programs that will serve as a reliable source of information in the greater horn of Africa region,” reads a statement from the founders that include Dr. Hamza Abdurezak , Chairman of Board of Trustees and Girma Tadesse, Executive Director.
According to the founders, OMN has a structural governing body that consists of the Board of Trustees, Executive Council and Editorial Board. The Board of Trustees is supervisory body of OMN, while the Executive Council is responsible for the overall management of the organization. The Editorial Board is charged with the development and production of news and other programs.
“We hold ourselves to the highest journalistic standards but unabashedly and proudly offer a uniquely Oromo perspective. We also aim to connect the growing Oromo diaspora to its homeland using innovative digital tools and people-centered storytelling techniques. Our high quality, high-impact multimedia content will be available in easily accessible formats including on the web, mobile devices, social media, satellite television and radio.”
OMN Live Report
Lagatafo Media Report
Oromia Media Network will be inaugurated on March 1, 2014!
Oromia Media Network (OMN) is a product of the unwavering spirit of the Oromo people, and their firm belief in freedom of expression and freedom of thought. We believe that the primary purpose of any media establishment is to offer thoughtful perspective on various issues. Cognizant of this, OMN is our grand step towards reclaiming our voice, the voice of truth and fair representation. We are elated to announce that Oromia Media Network will be launched on March 1st, 2014 in the heart of Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Oromia Media Network is an independent, nonpartisan and nonprofit news enterprise whose mission is to produce original, impartial, citizen-driven reporting. The goal of this network is to create multilingual news and programs that will serve as a reliable source of information in the greater horn of Africa region. OMN will offer perspectives grounded in objectivity rather than propaganda. It will uphold international core journalistic and ethical standards of truthfulness, objectivity, integrity, and public accountability while offering a uniquely Oromo perspective. These principles are integrated and adopted into our core values and editorial policy as a media entity.
OMN has a structural governing body that consists of the Board of Trustees, Executive Council and Editorial Board. The Board of Trustees is supervisory body of OMN, while the Executive Council is responsible for the overall management of the organization. The Editorial Board is charged with the development and production of news and other programs.
From Ayub Abubakar, who was murdered because he established the first Afaan Oromo radio in Mogadishu city, Somalia in 1960s, to Lelise Wodajo, who has just been forced into exile after years in jail, Oromo people and Oromo journalists in particular have sacrificed and paid the ultimate price for freedom of expression, to bring truth to light and tell their story in their own way. This project is the latest in this ardent effort to have our voice heard free from intimidation and censorship. We believe that the historic establishment of this media network is an integral part of the multifaceted struggle of the Oromo and other oppressed people to regain their freedom. This is evident in the unreserved support we have been receiving since we initiated this project. It is our collective effort that made it possible for us to stand at this pivotal point in our history.
Therefore, on behalf of the OMN leadership and the team that labored so hard to make this dream a reality, we take great pleasure in inviting Oromo and friends to join us for this historical inauguration at 2 PM on Saturday, March 1st, 2014 at University of Minnesota.
Hamza Abdurezak (PhD), Chairman of Board of Trustees
Girma Tadesse, Executive Director
Maaltu isini tti dhagayama?
Oofan, oofan! (warra jalaa qabu)
Egaa seerri badee maaltu walgaafataa? (tarreen afran kunis kan isa baasuti)
Egaa seerri badee maaltu walgaafataa?
Eekaa, maaltu walgaafataa!
Sanyii Abbaa Gadaa, yaa leencakoo! (i.b.)
Ee, ee yaa leencakoo! (w.j)
Dhuguma-kaa yaa leencakoo! (w j.) **